Date: 26 Jul 1997 00:30:18 -0000
To: Multiple recipients of list <>
Subject: Re: TAGAR
Content-ID: <>
Content-type: text/plain

In a message dated 97-07-25 18:14:32 EDT, you write:

<< I have no idea what Tagar is.
 Any information would be appreciated.
 Howard >>
TAGAR is Tabernaemontana divericata extract,  reportedly very close spp to
tabernanth iboga.  And it does contain ibogaine alkoloids according to Van
Beek.  Try ----  run tabernaemontana
divericata and others on search engine--- all kinds of info, but I don't have
time to elaborate.   Try
      Randy              let me know what you come up with    try entheogens
on search engine
Content-ID: <>
Content-type: text/plain;
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Tabernaemontana, (Apocynaceae), a review of it=92s taxonomy, ph= ytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology.

Van Beek et al
J of Ethnopharmacology #10: 1- , 1984.

This paper is a broad analysis of current knowledge on the genus Taber= naemontana, which in this paper includes Ervatamia spp and others as syno= nyms for members of this genus. The authors of this paper classify Ervata= mia orientalis as a synonym for Tabernaemontana orientalis, and also stat= e that many of the previously described species such as E. angustisepala = and E. pubescens can in fact be considered synonyms for T. orientalis als= o. It seems that many members of this genus have been described at differ= ent times and places, with quite a few different names, and can therefore= have many synonyms.
Previously as far as I was aware, most botanists in Australia recognis= ed three species, under the name of Ervatamia ( E. orientalis, E. angusti= sepala, E. pubescens. ). In this report E. orientalis is considered a sy= nonym for Tabernaemontana orientalis, as is E. angustisepala and E. pubes= cens. Recently the catalogue of Queensland native and naturalised plants = (1993) described two species, Tabernaemontana orientalis and T. pandacaqu= i, as being found in Queensland. T. pandacaqui is apparently a synonym f= or either E. angustisepala and/ or E. pubescens here. In the Flora of the= Kimberley region (1992), E. orientalis and E. pubescens are described, b= ut a note states that both these may be synonyms for T. pandacaqui.
There has been a lot of name changes and confusion amongst many of the= species in all the genera mentioned. Some species seem to have been desc= ribed up to five times with different names, or varieties.
T. orientalis is a widely distributed species, known from Indonesia, N= ew Guinea, northern Australia and the pacific region. It is very closely = related to T. divaricata, a plant indigenous to India, and also known as = Ervatamia divaricata, T. coronaria is also a synonym for this species. = This is a list of the alkaloids ( alkaloids related to or structurally li= ke ibogaine in italics ) obtained from various parts of specimens identif= ied as stated in this study.

legend for plant parts; l =3D leaves, tw =3D twigs, bark =3D bark(!), sb = =3D stem bark, rt bark =3D root bark, unk =3D unrecorded as to which part= of the plant was used.

Tabernaemontana orientalis.
synonyms E. orientalis, E. pubescens (?), E. angustisepala (?) and other= s...

   alkaloid            plant part        mol wt        specimen from..

 Akuammidine              unk          352.1787          Qld
 Dregamine              l & tw         354.1943          Loyalty Is =

                          bark                           Qld
                          unk                            New Hebrides
 Tabernaemontanine       l & tw        354.1943          Loyalty Is
                          bark                           Qld
                          unk                            New Hebrides
 Ervatamine              l & sb        354.1943          Qld
                         l & tw                          Loyalty Is
19,20-dehydro-ervatamine l & sb        352.178           Qld
 20-epi-ervatamine      l & tw         354.1943          Loyalty Is
                           sb                            Qld
 Apparacine                l           264.1626          Qld
 Conopharyngine         l & tw         398.2205          Loyalty Is
                          unk                            New Guinea
                          unk                            Qld
 Coronaridine           l & tw         338.1994          Loyalty Is
                          unk                            New Hebrides
 Ibogaine                  l           310.2045          Qld
 Iboxygaine             l & unk        326.1994          Qld
 Voacangine             l & tw         368.2100          Loyalty Is
                          unk                            Qld
                          unk                            New Guinea
 Isovoacangine           unk           368.2100          New Hebrides
 Voacristine            bark           384.2049          Qld
 Pandoline             l & tw          354.1943          Loyalty Is
                        unk                              New Guinea
 20-epi-pandoline      l & tw          354.1943          Loyalty Is
                        unk                              New Guinea
 Pandine               l & tw          352.1787          Loyalty Is
                        unk                              New Guinea
 Voacamine              bark           704.3938          Qld
 16-decarbo-methoxy-    bark           646.3883          Qld
 voacamine                      =

 16-decarbo-methoxy-    bark           648.4039          Qld
 16-decarbo-methoxy-    bark           648.4039          Qld
 19,20-dihydro-20-epi-voacamine =

The alkaloids voacamine, 16-decarbomethoxy-19,20-dihydrovoacamine and 1= 6 decarbomethoxy-19,20-dihydro-20-epi-voacamine are actually dimeric alka= loids constructed from a single ibogaine molecule combined with either a = dregamine or tabernaemontanine molecule. All these alkaloids, apart from = ibogaine were found together in the bark of the species from Qld. Apart= from apparacine, ibogaine and iboxygaine have lower molecular weights th= an any other alkaloids reported from this species.

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui.
synonymous with Ervatamia angustisepala(?).

   alkaloid         plant part        mol wt           specimen from..

 Pericyclivine        leaf           322.1681           Phillipines
 Tabernaemontanine    leaf           354.1943           Phillipines =

20-epi-Lochneridine   leaf           340.1787           Phillipines  =

Coronaridine          bark           338.1994           Phillipines
                      bark                              Jamaica
(-)-Ibogamine         bark           280.1939           Jamaica
Iboxygaine            bark           326.1994           Jamaica
Tabernanthine         bark           310.2045           Jamaica =

iso-Voacangine        bark           368.2100           Jamaica
Voacristine           bark           384.2049           Jamaica (?) =

Ervafoline            leaf           644.3362           Phillipines
Ervafolidine          leaf           662.3468           Phillipines
iso-Ervafolidine      leaf           662.3468           Phillipines

Ervafoline, Ervafolidine and iso-Ervafolidine are dimeric alkaloids, c= ontaining a single ibogan type molecule combined with another molecule of= a related type of alkaloid called plumeran.

Tabernaemontana divaricata.
synonyms Ervatamia divaricata, E.coronaria, T. coronaria and osely related to T. orientalis.

   alkaloid        plant part         mol wt            specimen from..

Dregamine          leaf ; stem       354.1943           India ; Florida
Tabernaemontanine  leaf; bark        354.1943           India ; Pakistan
                 roots; stem                            Florida ; Egypt =

Vobasine        leaf; stem; root     352.1787           Egypt
Apparicine          flower           264.1626           Cuba
Voaphylline       flower; leaf       296.1889           Cuba ; India
N-methylvoaphylline flower; leaf     310.2045           Cuba
Lochnericine          leaf           352.1787           India
Tabersonine          flower          336.1838           Cuba
Coronaridine       leaf; rt bark     338.1994         India ; Cuba ;Florida     =

                  stem; seed; unk                      Bangladesh ; Brazil
5-hydroxy-6-oxo-    rt bark          368.1736           India
3-oxo-coronaridine  rt bark          352.1787           India
5-oxo-coronaridine   rt bark         352.1787           India
6-oxo-coronaridine   rt bark         352.1787           India
Coronaridine-hydroxy- rt bark        354.1943           India
(+)-Heyneanine      rt bark          354.1943           India
(-)-Heyneanine      rt bark          354.1943           India
(-)-Ibogamine       rt bark; stem    280.1939           India ; Cuba
Voacangine          leaf; stem       368.2100           India ; Cuba
iso-Voacangine       stem            368.2100           India
Voacristine          leaf            384.2049           India
iso-Voacristine   leaf; flower       384.2049           India
3,14; 4,19-tetrahydro-  flower       250.1470           Cuba
Voacamine            rt bark         704.3938           India

Some of the alkaloids recorded such as the n-oxo- and hydroxy-indolenin= e types are probably not present in the fresh or living material, but are= formed by oxidation, either as the plant dries or if the alkaloids are e= xtracted the process involved may create them. Ibogan type alkaloids seem= to oxidise quite readily, eg up to 50% of the alkaloids may be lost in drying the plant material.