Date: Sun, 15 Feb 1998 09:58:53 EST
From: Chris Jenks <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Multiple recipients of list <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: BPC/Voacanga/Iboga
At 05:37 PM 2/14/98 EST, Bill Halle <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
>Thanks for the great post about Ibogaine and it's extracts. What is this
>plant that the allies co sells?
Here is the description from the Allies catalog:
Tabernaemontana divaricata (Tagar, Uchu-sanango)
Apocynaceae. Closely related to Voacanga and Gardenia, T. divaricata is
an extremely popular horticultural flower with many names. It is likened to
the most aromatic in existence, with majestic flowers of graceful, undulate
beauty. The foliage is shiny and deep green. A well-grown speciman (sic)
will be 3'-4' tall, equally wide and completely covered with flowers.
Mentioned in the Kama Sutra as a love plant, it certainly puts out a
sensual vibration. A perfect gift for a lover. The very bitter roots & bark
are rich in medicinal alkaloids. The Tikunas in the Rio Loretyacu region
combine bark scrapings with aguardiente and give small doses to new mothers
during the eight days of confinement to ease afterbirth pain. The bark is
also scraped and soaked overnight in water to lessen stomach & rheumatic
pain and diarrhea. Successful growing requires bright light, warm
conditions and generous fertilization. Protect from wind so the flower buds
stay intact. As the plant grows, new leaves emerge in pairs facing each
other mimicking praying hands. A good reminder and another of natures (sic)
It seems that the predominant alkaloid in this plant is coronaridine,
which is different than ibogaine in two places, and is related to ibogamine
in the same way that voacangine is related to ibogaine - in having an
easily removed methyl ester group. Since ibogamine has been found effective
in treating addiction in rats, and seems to be pharmacologically similar to
ibogaine in animals, perhaps ibogamine produced from the coronaridine in
Tagar might someday be a useful addiction treatment. Unfortunately,
coronaridine doesn't seem to resemble ibogaine pharmacologically.
The following is from an excellent review of plants containing alkaloids
like ibogaine. Also see the posting on 7/26/97 entitled "Re: TAGAR" using
the ibogaine list archive at ftp://ns2.calyx.net/pub/mailing-lists/ibogaine/
van Beek, T. A.; Verpoorte, R.; Svendsen, A. Baerheim; Leeuwenberg, A. J.
M. and Bisset, N. G. "Tabernaemontana L. (Apocynaceae): A review of its
taxonomy, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology.", Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, (1984), 10(1), 1-156.
Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. et Schult. 1819; 424;
Merrill 1934: 141.
Basionym: Nerium divaricatum L. 1753: 209 (partly, excl. synonyms).
Type: Cult. in Sri Lanka, herb. Hermann 1: 7 (BM: lectotype).
Homotypic synonym: Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burkill 1925: 320.
Heterotypic synonyms: T. alternifolic L. 1753: 211. Type: Van Rheede tot
Drakestein 1678: 1, t. 46.
Nerium coronarium Jacq. 1787 (?): 5, pl. 52; 1787: 138. Type: Cult. Hort.
Bot. Schoenbrunn, Vienna, Jacquin s.n. (W: holotype). Homotypic synonyms:
T. coronaria (Jacq.) Willd. 1809: 275. Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq.) Stapf
T. siamensis Warb. ex Pitard 1933: 1158. Type: Thailand: Bangkok,
Zimmermann 65 (P: holotype; L, M, W: isotypes). Homotypic synonym:
Ervatamia siamensis (Warb. ex Pitard) Kerr 1939: 447.
This species - the type species of the generic synonym Ervatamia - is
widely distributed in tropical countries as a garden plant, usually with
sweet-scented double flowers. It is indigenous in India.
Linnaeus's description in the Flora Zeylanica (1747) and the first phrase
in the Species Plantarum (1753) refer to Tabernaemontana, while the
vernacular name in the Flora Zeylanica and the other phrases in the Species
Plantarum refer to Wrightia antidysenterica (L.) R.Br. Stapf (1902) and
Boiteau (1981), neither of whom accepted the epithet divaricata, probably
erroneously considering the lectotype of Wrightia antidysenterica, which is
also in the Hermann herbarium, as the basis for the name Nerium divaricatum.
Roemer, J. J. and Schultes, J. A. (1819) Systema vegetabilium, Stuttgart,
Merrill, E.D. (1934) An enumeration of plants collected in Sumatra by W.N.
and C.M. Baugham. Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard
University, 8, 3-178, pl. 1-14.
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum, Stockholm.
Burkill, L.H. (1925) The botany of the Arbor Expedition. Records of the
Botanical Survey of India 10, 1-420.
H.A. van Rheede tot Drakestein (1679) Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, Vol. 2,
J. van Someren, J. van Dijck, Amsterdam, pp. 105, 106.
Jacquin, N.J. (1787) Collectonea..., Wien, vol. 1.
Willdenow, C.L. (1809) Enumeratio plantarum hortii regii botanici
Stapf, O. (1902) Apocynaceae. In: W.T. Thisleton-Dyer (Ed.), Flora of
Tropical Africa, London, vol. 4 (1), pp. 24-231, 589-614.
Pitard, J. (1933) Apocynaceae. In: H. Lecomte and H. Humbert (Eds.), Flore
Generale de l'Indochine, Paris, vol. 1, pp. 1087-1262.
Kerr, A.F.G. (1939) In: W.G. Craib, Florae Siamensis Enumeratio, Bangkok
and London, 2 (5).
The alkaloids of Tabernaemontana divaricata:
The abbreviations used in this and subsequent sections for the different
parts of the plants investigated are: b = bark; fl = flowers; fr = fruits;
l = leaves; la = latex; r = roots; rb = root bark; sb = stem bark; se =
seeds; st = stems; sw = stem wood; tw = twigs; unk = unknown; wp = whole
Plant part Country of origin Alkaloids isolated Reference
l;st India; Florida Dregamine 302;132
l;sb.b.r;b India; Pakistan Tabernaemontanine 281,302;83;89
st;fl,l,st,r Florida; Egypt Tabernaemontanine 132;183
fl,l,st,r Egypt Vobasine 183
fl Cuba Apparicine 416
fl;l;l Cuba; India Voaphylline 416;313;281
fl;l Cuba N1-Methylvoaphylline 348,416;313
l India Lochnericine 281
fl Cuba Tabersonine 416
l;rb; India Coronaridine
sb;st; Cuba; Florida Coronaridine 312;132;
se Bangladesh Coronaridine 400
unk Brazil Coronaridine 249
rb India 5-Hydroxy-6-oxocoronaridine 408
rb;unk India; Brazil 3-Oxocoronaridine 408;249
rb India 5-Oxocoronaridine 408
rb India 6-Oxocoronaridine 408
unk Brazil 3-(2'-Oxopropyl)-coronaridine 249
rb India Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine 408
rb India (+)-Heyneanine 408
rb India (-)-Heyneanine 408
rb;sb India; Cuba (-)-Iboagamine 408;312
l;sb India; Cuba Voacangine 281;312
sb India Isovoacangine 312
l India Voacristine 302
fl,l India Isovoacristine 374
fl Cuba 3,14;4,19-Tetrahydro-olivacine 348
rb India Voacamine 408
Non-alkaloidal constituents of Tabernaemontana divaricata:
Plant part Constituent Reference
tw,la Unidentified amino acids 192
tw,la Milk-clotting and proteolytic enzymes 192
la 2 Proteins 149,177
la Bacteriolytic enzyme 149
tw,la Galactose and glucose 192
fl;l (?) Kaempferol 124;347
l (?) Salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic
vanillic and syringic acids 347
l (?) Sinapic acid 347
l (?) Quercetin 347
l;sb;rb alpha-Amyrin and lupeol and their acetates 268,302;117;408
l;sb;rb beta-Sitosterol 268,302;117;408
r D-Mannitol 165
rb Benzoic acid 408
rb Aurantiamide acetate 408
rb Cycloartenol 408
rb Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids 80
Ethnobotany of Tabernaemontana divaricata:
Western India: The latex has the reputation of being very cooling and is
applied to wounds to prevent inflammation .
Southern India: The juice expressed from the plant is mixed with oil and
applied to the head in order to soothe pains in the eyes. Chewing the root
relieves tooth-ache. Decocted with oil and applied to the head it relieves
all indispositions, especially pains, of the head. Again, the root rubbed
up with water and drunk kills intestinal worms and rubbed up with lemon
juice it removes opacities from the eyes . An infusion of the root is
believed to have febrifugal properties. An infusion of the bark and root is
used against dysentery . The flowers are used to treat inflammation of
the cornea .
India: The plant is a constituent of various medicines for the treatment
of eye conditions. Applied as a face plaster, it is a remedy against
poisons. In clarified butter and boiled in water together with other
ingredients it cures coughs, asthma, catarrh, fevers, mania, ulceration,
morbid secretion of urine, leprosy, hiccough, vomiting, swellings,
suppression of urine, disorders of semen and womb. It predisposes women to
pregnancy. It destroys poisons. The plant is used in the treatment of the
spleen, piles and abdominal tumours. In a medicated oil as a clyster,
enema, liniment or in the ear, it is also administered for most of the
conditions just listed; in addition, it is given for diarrhea, heat in the
head, epilepsy and emprosthotonos. In oil together with other constituents
it relieves diseases and gives strength in a beneficial and excellent
liniment. It promotes the growth of hair, conception and ensures long life.
Given as a poultice with other ingredients, ir relieves headache. It is
also a constituent of a remedy to cure leprosy or pityriasis. It is a
constituent of an oil said to be a remedy for every disease. The drug is
administered as an errhine, draught, liniment, enema or lictus . The
juice from the flowers is dropped into the eyes in cases of opthalmia; it
is supposed to be of a very cooling nature , but at the same time it is
said to be very toxic . The aril gives a red color which is
occasionally used as a dye by the hill people. The wood is employed
medicinally as a refrigerant and also in incense and perfumery . The
root has a bitter taste and is used as an emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, tonic
and purgative. It acts as a tonic for the brain, liver and spleen; it
removes bad humors and is useful in paralysis, weakness of the limbs and in
strangury; it lessens pains in the limbs and joints and cures scorpion
stings and epilepsy. Charcoal made from it is good in opthalmia and the oil
is good for epilepsy (Yunani). The root is acrid, bitter and heating,
astringent to the bowels, alexipharmic, digestible, useful in "kapha",
billiousness and diseases of the blood (Ayurveda) .
Pakistan: The plant is cultivated as an ornamental throughout the Punjab.
The bark, leaves and flowers are popular household remedies, the flowers
especially being valued by Yunani practitioners for their analgesic
Sri Lanka: The latex is said to be cooling and is applied to sore eyes.
It is also a remedy for toothache. The plant is commonly cultivated and its
uses are similar to those of T. dichotoma .
Burma: The root is an emmenagogue and a tonic . An unspecified part
of the plant is used in making cakes of yeast for brewing rice beer .
Vietnam: The roots are used against jungle fever .
China: The juice of the leaves is antihypertensive and diuretic, and it
clears edema; it is also used for treating eye conditions, boils, ulcers
and other sores, as well as rabies, headache, fractures, etc. .
Malaysia: The root is applied against lumbago, urinary stones and
poisoning . The leaves are pounded with sugar candy and water to give a
drink for curing coughs, and the ground roots are used to treat eye
conditions . The leaves are used against convulsions. For ulceration of
the nose, the pounded roots are mixed with the roots of another
(unidentified) Tabernaemontana species, and the roots and leaves of
Sauropus albicans and the young leaves of Ficus hispida; the mixture is
then sniffed into the nostrils .
Indonesia: Throughout the country the plant is cultivated for its white,
sweet-scented flowers [8,51]. The leaves, bark and twigs may form the main
components of an arrow poison used on the Mentawei Islands; the roots are a
local medicine [33,39,50]. Water in which the flowers have been soaked is
sprinkled on smallpox patients . The dried root is used as a powder or
as a decoction against stomach troubles . The sap and flowers are said
to be poisonous [29, cf. 26].
Pharmacological studies on extracts from Tabernaemontana divaricata:
Crude extracts had anticancer activity . Alkaloids from the seeds,
roots and pod depressed bone-marrow activity in rats, resulting in
temporary leukopenia .
Pharmacological activities of individual Tabernaemontana alkaloids
The alkaloid has been tested in the mouse, cat, dog, monkey and rat by a
variety of pharmacological procedures. It showed autonomic and CNS
activity. In mice it produced analgesia and was effective in suppressing
rage caused by foot-shock. Toxicity in the anesthetised cat appeared to be
associated with respiratory depression. Coronaridine was inactive in the 9
KB system in cell culture . In a general pharmacological screening,
the compound exhibited little activity . A single 30 mg/kg p.o. dose
of coronaridine prevented pregnancy in rats when given on day 1, 2, 3 or 4
after coitus. When given on day 5, 6, 7 or 8 of pregnancy, the results were
only partially successful. The substance showed estrogenic activity, and it
was this activity which appeared to be responsible for the antifertility
action. However, the alkaloid was devoid of anti-estrogenic, androgenic,
anti-androgenic, progestational, anti-progestational and uterine-stimulant
activities, although there was partial inhibition of oxytocin-induced
uterine response . The alkaloid was active against the P-388 test
system in cell culture, the ED50 being 0.43 micrograms/ml .
In cats and dogs the alkaloid has distinct central-stimulating
properties, different from those of strychnine, which can be abolished by
atropine. In mice, it has weak but definite anticonvulsant properties
. Ibogaine has a transient hypotensive effect. It acts as a true
hallucinogenic agent, and it can be used as a stimulant to overcome fatigue
and sleepiness. It could perhaps be used as a substitute for cocaine .
In a general pharmacological screening, ibogaine induced tremors in mice
and jactatio capitis when given s.c. together with Rigidyl i.p. The LD50
i.v. in the mouse was 42 mg/kg [128,164]. When administered i.v. to
anesthetised guinea pigs, the alkaloid produced bradycardia that was
resistant to vagotomy and atropine sulfate (4 mg/kg i.m.). Blood pressure
was lowered, but there was no alteration in the ECG .
In a general pharmacological screening, the substance exhibited strong
central-stimulating properties and when given s.c. together with Rigidyl
i.p. it produced jactatio capitis. In anesthetised cats it caused
hypotension and marked bradycardia. The LD50 i.v. in the mouse was 46 mg/kg
. When injected i.v. into anesthetised guinea pigs, the effects caused
by ibogaline were similar to those brought about by ibogaine (q.v.) .
Central-stimulating properties were observed in a general pharmacological
screening, and in mice, when administered s.c. together with Rigidyl i.p.,
the alkaloid produced jactatio capitis . On i.v. injection into
anesthetised guinea pigs, the effects observed were the same as with
ibogaine (q.v.) . Ibogamine was not active in the P-388 or KB test
systems in cell culture .
In a general pharmacological screening, voacangine exhibited a slight
central stimulating effect. The LD50 i.v. in the mouse was 54 mg/kg .
When injected i.v. in anesthetised guinea pigs it produced the same effects
as did ibogaine (q.v.) . Voacangine had no effect on the heart .
The alkaloid was not active in the P-388 and KB test systems in cell
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I hope this answers your question!